Active substances: Azithromycin
Participants self-collected rectal and vaginal samples at enrollment treatment time-point and during 4 weeks of follow-up. The endpoint was microbiological cure by a negative nucleic acid amplification test at 4 weeks.
Results We analyzed 416 patients, of whom 319 had both rectal and vaginal chlamydia at enrollment, 22 had rectal chlamydia only, and 75 had vaginal chlamydia only. In 341 rectal infections, microbiological cure in azithromycin-treated women was 78.
In 394 vaginal infections, cure was 93. Conclusions The effectiveness of doxycycline is high and exceeds that of azithromycin for the treatment of rectal CT infections in women.
Clinical Trials Registration women, Chlamydia trachomatis, rectal, treatment effectiveness There is an ongoing debate regarding the widespread use of a single dose of azithromycin for uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis CT infections, and especially for CT infections at the rectal site.
Rectal infections are commonly found in women. Meta-analysis of eight randomized clinical trials among pregnant women with C.
Gastrointestinal effects were reported by 78.
There is no evidence of teratogenicity in animal models, even at four-times the human treatment dose. Efficacy The in vitro anti-malarial activity of azithromycin increases 200-fold against P.
At 48-hours, azithromycin is 10-fold more active than erythromycin against chloroquine-resistant P. Daily regimens of 250 mg with a loading dose of 500 or 750 mg have shown an impressive chemoprophylactic effect against P.
By comparison, the chemoprophylactic effect of azithromycin against P. Table 1 Chemoprophylactic effect of azithromycin monotherapy against Plasmodium falciparum in semi-immune non-pregnant adults.
Full size table The first published P. Subjects were then inoculated with five Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes that had an average of 3. With unquantifiable plasma concentrations of azithromycin, presumably due to poor absorption, one of four subjects developed parasitaemia in the 14-day post-challenge period.
A subsequent trial suggested that a regimen of longer duration might be required against P.
Ten non-immune subjects were given a loading dose of 500 mg followed by 250 mg daily for 2 weeks prior to parasite exposure. Despite relatively poor in vivo protection against P.
Chloroquine as monotherapy for the treatment and prevention of malaria Pharmacokinetics Chloroquine has been the first-line treatment of malaria in much of the world for most of the past 60 years.
A single therapeutic dose against a chloroquine-resistant strain will persist six to 10 days in the blood, while its overall half-life is between one and two months.
Chloroquine accumulates extensively in the liver, connective tissue and pigmented tissue such as skin and retina, enabling enormous total volume distribution.
Chloroquine is active against erythrocytic life stages of Plasmodium species when haemoglobin is being actively digested. However, to our knowledge, no reports have examined the correlation between macrolide combination effects and immune checkpoint systems in S.
All experiments were conducted according to our institution's ethical guidelines for animal experimentation.