Active substances: Norfloxacin
The Agency acknowledges that the advice and recommendations set out in this statement are based upon the best current available scientific knowledge and medical practices, and is disseminating this document for information purposes to both travellers and the medical community caring for travellers.
Manufacturers have sought approval and provided evidence as to the safety and efficacy of their products only when used in accordance with the product monographs or other similarly approved standards or instructions for use.
If the time to your next dosage is close, simply skip the medicine.
In such cases, try to not double the dosage. Do I need to see a doctor? If you feel that you might have used more than the prescribed quantity of Norfloxacin, please talk to a physician immediately as overdosage more than the prescribed quantity might lead to undesirable side-effects.
Am I allowed to drink alcohol after taking Norfloxacin?
Consumption of alcohol is not recommended with Norfloxacin. In any case, do not consume more than 90 mL a day. Nalidixic acid had adequate activity against Gram-negative aerobes, but its modest serum and tissue concentrations coupled with its relatively high minimal inhibitory concentrations MICs precluded its use to treat systemic infections.
The main quinolone nucleus is a nitrogen-containing, 8-membered heterocyclic aromatic quinoline ring. In studying the structure-activity relationships of the early 4-quinolones, the 3-carboxyl group and 4-oxo groups were linked to antimicrobial activity.
Structure-activity relationships of the fluoroquinolones are shown in Figure 1. Subsequent derivatives were synthesized with the 3-carboxy and the 4-oxo units, which included cinoxacin, pipemidic acid, flumequine, miloxacin, and rosoxacin.
Many of these agents were toxic, but cinoxacin and pipemidic acid were considered improvements over nalidixic acid.
Pipemidic acid had improved tissue penetration and was used to treat otitis media and sinusitis. Pipemidic acid was also moderately active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which was credited to the presence of the piperazinyl group at position 7 of the ring.
Ten years later, this structural characteristic was used to enhance the activity of the norfloxacin molecule and the other 6-fluoroquinolones. Examples of the structure of the fluoroquinolones are represented in Figure 2.Anorexia Low blood pressure While some these symptoms are more common, there the above list or not, please could also occur.
The fluoroquinolones contain 6-fluoro substituents, which greatly broadens the spectrum of activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens, possibly by improving tissue penetration and binding to the DNA gyrase enzyme.
Fluorine at this position provides greater activity than any other halogen or substituent 48, 96, 179. Other structural modifications have been made primarily on ring positions 1, 5, and 8 48, 96, 179.
Norfloxacin, having both the 6-fluoro group and the 7-piperazinyl group, was discovered in 1978.
This fluoroquinolone compound demonstrated more potent antibacterial activity than the previously developed quinolones, and its antibacterial spectrum included some Gram-positive bacteria.
In addition, norfloxacin penetrated well into tissues.
However, this agent had poor oral absorption and only modest activity against Gram-positive bacteria and pseudomonads. As a result, the clinical utility of norfloxacin was limited to treatment of urinary tract infections.
Further quinolone development focused on improved oral absorption and included agents such as enoxacin, pefloxacin, and ofloxacin.