Active substances: Norfloxacin
CHMP stated that doctors should not prescribe oral norfloxacin for complicated pyelonephritis and should consider switching patients already taking oral norfloxacin for this type of infection to an alternative antibiotic.
Contraindications As noted above, under licensed use, norfloxacin is also now considered to be contraindicated for the treatment of certain sexually transmitted diseases by some experts due to bacterial resistance.
Patients taking any of these drugs concomitantly with norfloxacin should be carefully monitored.
Pregnancy Norfloxacin has been reported to rapidly cross the blood-placenta and blood-milk barrier, and is extensively distributed into the fetal tissues.
For this reason norfloxacin and other fluoroquinolones are contraindicated during pregnancy due to the risk of spontaneous abortions and birth defects.
The manufacturer only recommends use of norfloxacin during pregnancy when benefit outweighs risk.
Ciprofloxacin is being licensed for the treatment of Complicated Urinary Tract Infections and Pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli and Inhalational Anthrax post-exposure and levofloxacin was recently licensed for the treatment of Inhalational Anthrax post-exposure.
However, the Fluoroquinolones are licensed to treat lower respiratory infections in children with cystic fibrosis in the UK.
Adverse effects In general, fluoroquinolones are well tolerated, with most side-effects being mild to moderate. The overall rate of adverse events in patients treated with fluoroquinolones is roughly similar to that seen in patients treated with other antibiotic classes.
Centers for Disease Control study found patients treated with fluoroquinolones experienced adverse events severe enough to lead to an emergency department visit more frequently than those treated with cephalosporins or macrolides, but less frequently than those treated with penicillins, clindamycin, sulfonamides, or vancomycin.
In the present study, there were high susceptibility rates to meropenem and nitrofurantoin, indicating that carbapenem and nitrofuran resistance is still an unusual phenotype among E.
This finding was similar to those demonstrated in other surveillance studies, in which these antibiotics were the most effective antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of UTI.
Resistance to commonly used antimicrobial drugs raises the global concern about the increased clinical failure rates and the limited therapeutic options available for physicians treating UTIs.
In addition, all phylogenetic group D isolates were resistant to quinolones. Also, group D isolates were only resistant to four drugs.
In comparison with our results, Bashir et al. Studies like ours need to be done also in other regions to provide greater understanding of the prevalences and geographic distribution of E.Although regulations call for culling of diseased animals, certain situations e.
Regular monitoring of antibiotic resistance patterns will also help clinicians to prescribe the most appropriate antibiotic and to avoid further development of antimicrobial drug resistance. MA Haghighi for his important technical support. References S.
Basu. Mukherjee. Hazra, and M. View at: Google Scholar S. Lee.