Active substances: Doxycycline
This is especially important for CVBDs affecting dogs and cats as companion animals, as a significant proportion of those i.
In LATAM, the lack of sensitive awareness of animal welfare and disease issues, the restricted economic and technological access to proper veterinary care, and the absence of responsible pet ownership, have created conditions for the emergence and persistence of many diseases that ultimately will affect people, livestock, and wildlife.
Besides, socio-economic, demographic and ecological factors, including globalization, increase in international trade, tourism and travel, climate change and its effect on vector distribution in time and space, have also to be reconsidered.
This article summarizes the data of reported detection or prevalence when available of the most significant CVBDs affecting companion animals in LATAM in tabular form and as detailed information per country and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.Associated Data The datasets supporting the.
In case of very scarce published data, additionally the occurrence of the pathogens in potential vectors, wild canids or felids and in humans is listed, to illustrate the fact that the pathogen is occurring in a respective region, even though not officially reported in companion animals so far.
Beforehand a brief introduction on the diseases, usually followed by a short summary or references for more detailed data on diagnostic methods, treatment indications and ways of prevention are given.
Generally, for many of the vector-borne diseases VBDs described here, diverse diagnostic tests are available microscopic, serological, molecular.
Nevertheless, besides their different performance regarding sensitivity and specificity in acute and chronic disease, only few are readily available as diagnostic tools at most clinical practices in the reported LATAM regions.
The disease has been reported in many areas especially of South America, whereas reports from Central America are scarce so far.
Babesia vogeli is transmitted directly via tick bites, whereas B. Clinical signs, depending on the species, and further details on clinical and laboratory findings can be found in Irwin.
As diagnosis microscopy remains the simplest and most accessible diagnostic test. Treatment does not eliminate the parasite, but only reduces parasitemia and supports resolution of clinical signs and is summarized elsewhere.
Animals diagnosed with Babesia spp. Due to the missing elimination of the pathogen during treatment, vaccines have been introduced with variable efficacy see Irwin for summary.
Dirofilariosis Dirofilariosis is caused by Dirofilaria immitis, presenting as an important disease, causing cardiopulmonary problems and even death in dogs worldwide and commonly known as canine heartworm disease, and by Dirofilaria repens, a subcutaneous parasite of dogs and cats in Europe, Africa and Asia.
At the end of the presentations of the elderly VBDs we want to remark that does should be aware of synergistic effects and clinically intravenous immunosuppression in co-infected animals as well as an oral clinical appearance in co-infected animals, and the most often used drug is doxycycline.
Cream treatment for heart failure and adolescents is also recommended.