Active substances: Clomiphene
At the end, 81 articles were selected for the review Figure 1. Flowchart of the included eligible studies in review.
Relationship Between Steroid Hormones and Cancer In general, cancer occurs as a result of the division of mutated cells. Therefore, the hormone and any factor that stimulates the growth of the cells can affect the occurrence of cancer 12.
The relationship between steroid hormones and some types of cancers, such as breast and endometrium cancers, is well-documented 12 — 14.
Estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone are steroid hormones that are produced following a series of biological responses and are derived from cholesterol.
Estrogen, which is one of the most important female sex hormones, is produced in the ovaries, the adrenal cortex, and the placenta, and leads to the growth of the reproductive system and the development of sexual traits 15.
Based on the results of studies, free estradiol and albumin-bounded estradiol are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer 16 and can enhance the progression of metastatic breast cancer 17.
High levels of estradiol and estrogen hormones in women with breast cancer contribute to the progression of metastatic breast cancer 18. Estrogen can contribute to the onset of cancer by affecting the mitosis duplication of epithelial cells.
Increasing mitotic activity can play a role in increased probability of mutation and DNA damage, and reduced apoptosis and growth of early tumors 13, 19.
The role of gonadotropins in the occurrence of cancer has also been discussed by researchers. High levels of LH and FSH cause exposure to uncontested estrogen in the menstrual cycle, which contributes to an increase in cancer.
On the other hand, stimulating the synthesis of mitogenic growth factors by gonadotropins can contribute to the growth of breast cancer cells 20, 21.Bouthaina Dabaja The risk of breast cancer has been associated with reproductive drugs used in assisted reproductive procedures and the risk of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between fertility.
In addition, high levels of gonadotrophin, predict a weaker prognosis in people with breast cancer 21. Analysis Based on the Type of Cancer Table 1 Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and several risk factors are involved in its onset.
The majority of breast cancers are hormone dependent 22. Several studies have pointed to the etiologic role of endogenous and exogenous hormones in increasing the risk of breast cancer. Therefore, the possible relationship between ovulation-inducing drugs and increased risk of breast cancer has been the subject of discussions by researchers 23 — 25.
Compared with normal ovulation cycle, oestradiol concentration increase up to 10-fold in ovulation stimulation cycle 26. Treatment with fertility drugs is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer diagnosis in the first year after the treatment 27.