Active substances: Ciprofloxacin
More studies are needed to determine in what instances antimicrobials are of greatest benefit, so that adverse effects of rampant antibiotic prescription can be curtailed.
It is a very common presentation to the Emergency Room ER and Out-Patient Departments, and the majority of cases are infectious, though a specific organism is not usually identified.
Antibiotics are not routinely indicated, and their role in management of acute gastroenteritis AGE is not well defined- this will be the focus of this review.
Generally, as the causative organism will not be identified in the patient presenting to the ER with AGE, classification on the basis of the pathogen is not useful for this review.
Thus, this paper will differentiate patients on the basis of presentation. Acute Watery Diarrhoea This is defined as loose, watery stool without blood, lipid, mucus, etc.
Acute diarrhoeal illness tends to be a self-limiting disease, so treatment is mainly supportive. Antimicrobial therapy is not routinely indicated for numerous reasons. It was suggested that increased glutathione peroxidase GPx activity is associated with the increased metabolism of H 2 O 2 into water and oxygen instead of its conversion into potent free radical through Fenton-type reaction i.
Glutathione disulphide GSSH is reduced into glutathione GSH through glutathione reductase GRd, an enzyme which was also found to be stimulated by melatonin in physiological concentration, thereby recovering the glutathione GSH in the process of H 2 O 2 metabolism.
Melatonin has been reported to be involved in the induction of G 6 PD enzymatic activity to protect the cell from oxidative damage. Antioxidant mechanism of Melatonin in nephrotoxicity; Melatonin attenuate the oxidative stress by direct neutralization of the reactive species central, induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes left and inhibits the pro-oxidant pathway of nitric oxide synthase NOS.This could plead to basic questions about the steps that were being taken to accost each of the imperil factors.
In addition to its receptor-mediated antioxidant pathways, receptor-independent antioxidant mechanisms provide lead towards melatonin's ability to neutralize free radicals which eventually provides the protection against cellular and sub-cellular oxidative damages.
Direct free radical scavenging ability of melatonin is to be associated with the intrinsic capacity of melatonin's indole ring.
It has been suggested that indole ring of melatonin undergoes the addition of free radical or donation of electron to neutralize the free radicals.
Melatonin use to mitigate the nephrotoxicity of drugsAnticancerCisplatin Cisplatin, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II, is broadly and effectively used antineoplastic agent in chemotherapy of most solid tumors.
The therapeutic effectiveness, of Cisplatin, has been compromised by its dose limiting toxicities, mainly nephrotoxicity, which leads to the discontinuation of therapy. Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity is majorly associated with its metabolites to cause intracellular oxidative stress and subsequent vigorous inflammatory pathways in proximal tubular cells.