Active substances: Ciprofloxacin
+ free Cipro pill.
On the other, the Canadian and United States governments insisted on obtaining national stockpiles of the drug at much-reduced prices. Legislators and regulators alike keep searching for the best balance between these conflicting goals.
This paper explores these issues through a comparative study of Canadian and United States drug patent regimes.
Part II is an overview of the legislative and regulatory framework currently in place in both jurisdictions.
Pursuant to complex procedures, a drug patentee is entitled to an automatic injunction against a proposed generic competitor.
Finally, Part V looks at pending legislation directed at readjusting the balance between pharmaceutical innovation and generic competition. Pharmaceutical Market A general overview of the pharmaceutical market is key to understanding drug patent laws in Canada and the United States.
In 1 study from Thailand, ingestion of raw meat by dogs was associated with leptospirosis.
Contact with slow-moving or stagnant warm water is a risk factor in humans. In developing countries, access to sewage increases risk of the disease in dogs.
The incubation period for leptospirosis can be as short as a few days, the organisms replicating rapidly within the blood as early as 1 day after infection before invading tissues.
What Serovars Cause Disease in Dogs? Infecting serovars vary geographically among dog populations depending on exposure to infected wild or domestic animal reservoir hosts.
A complete understanding of infecting serovars in the dog population has been limited because published studies usually have not included isolation efforts.
Furthermore, the MAT has poor ability to predict the infecting serogroup. Although dogs are considered maintenance hosts for leptospires in serogroup Canicola, the prevalence of seroreactivity to this serogroup in dogs from the United States and Europe currently is low.
Infection with serogroup Canicola serovars was reported in dogs from the United States in the 1950 s and 1960 s. A high prevalence of seroreactivity to serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae sometimes has been documented in nonrodent periurban wildlife eg, raccoons 73, and the role of transmission of serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae by these hosts is unclear.
Given that the MAT is not effective for predicting the infecting serovar, more studies by isolation are required to confirm the importance of various wildlife hosts as reservoirs of serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae.
Serovars from serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola cause disease in dogs after experimental inoculation. However, another Bratislava serovar was isolated from a dog with leptospirosis. Serovar Grippotyphosa also causes disease in dogs, 18, 48 and other studies have reported disease in association with serogroups Sejroe 82 and Ballum.
Antibody titers to serovar Autumnalis often increase together with antibody titers to serovars Grippotyphosa, Pomona, and Bratislava.
Nonspecific increases in titers to serogroup Autumnalis have been observed in dogs with diseases other than leptospirosis, and in dogs vaccinated for or infected with serogroup Pomona or Grippotyphosa unpublished observations, and caution is advised when interpreting titers to this serovar.
Renal tubular infection by leptospires is associated with acute interstitial nephritis and tubular dysfunction, although acute tubular necrosis can occur in naturally infected dogs.
In contrast to what is observed in cattle, hemolysis does not appear to be a feature of canine leptospirosis. Clotting function assays in dogs with leptospirosis show variable increases in fibrinogen, D-Dimer and fibrinogen degradation product concentrations, and decreases in antithrombin activity, in addition to thrombocytopenia.
Use of antibody testing for diagnosis of leptospirosis generally is based on the MAT, which involves reacting serial dilutions of patient sera with an array of live leptospiral serovars, and assessment of organism agglutination by darkfield microscopy.